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Students also worked directly with people of all ages, races, ethnic groups, abilities and disabilities, genders, and economic backgrounds. Small-Scale Native Trees and Shrubs. Catherine Gistedt, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Marley Middle School Science Students learn how to determine acceptable water quality of our environment using surveys, observations, and test kits. Then give students instructions for the activity: How does his intervention escalate the problem? Dress for the weather and activities.

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Download without a subscription. Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips. Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips Thank you for subscribing to the Educationworld. Classroom Problem Solver Dr. Objectives Students will discuss the meaning of the words respect and disrespect. More Activity Ideas Some points students might bring to a discussion of respect -- or that you might work into that discussion -- and some additional activity ideas follow: Introduce the "Golden Rule" -- treat others the way you would like to be treated -- as a simple definition of the word respect.

Have students make a list of synonyms for the word respect; esteem, honor, regard, value, cherish, appreciate, admire, praise, compliment, for example. Share books in which respect is a clear theme. Respect , and Library Lesson Plans [this archived lesson might take some time to download]. Different people have different likes and dislikes.

To emphasize that point, you might invite each student to share something he or she likes very much. That might be a food, an activity, a place After students share, ask some of the students to identify things that other students like but they don't like as much. Conclude the discussion by emphasizing that people should treat one another respectfully in spite of their differences. Have students look through magazines for pictures showing people respecting others' differences or pictures of different kinds of people working or playing together.

Create a class "We Respect Differences" collage. After talking about some of the things respect means, you might start a class or small-group discussion about what respect does not mean. What kinds of behaviors could be considered disrespectful? Students might provide responses such as rudeness, malicious gossip, criticism, insults As a follow-up activity, ask students to offer synonyms for the word disrespect.

For example, rudeness, dishonor, ridicule, scorn, disregard, ignore, disdain Assessment Students model and celebrate respect -- and earn the popcorn party -- within 12 school days.

Trending Icebreakers Volume 5: It's time to make a fresh start. You've done some summer reading on classroom management, and you're eager to try out some new ideas. You've learned from past mistakes, and you look forward this year to avoiding those mistakes. Most fun of all, the opening days of school are an opportunity to get to know a whole new group of kids!

What will you do during those first few days of school? What activities might you do to help you get to know your new students? What activities will help students get to know you and one another? For the last three years, Education World has presented a new group of getting-to-know-you ideas -- or icebreakers -- for those first days of school. Here are 19 ideas -- ideas tried and tested by Education World readers -- to help develop classroom camaraderie during the opening days of school.

Opening-Day Letter Still looking for more ideas? Don't forget our archive of more than icebreaker activities. Write a letter to your students. In that letter, introduce yourself to students.

Tell them about your hopes for the new school year and some of the fun things you'll be doing in class. In addition, tell students a few personal things about yourself; for example, your likes and dislikes, what you did over the summer, and your hobbies. Ask questions throughout the letter. You might ask what students like most about school, what they did during the summer, what their goals for the new school year are, or what they are really good at.

In your letter, be sure to model the correct parts of a friendly letter! On the first day of school, display your letter on an overhead projector. Then pass each student a sheet of nice stationery. Have the students write return letters to you. In this letter, they will need to answer some of your questions and tell you about themselves. This is a great way to get to know each other in a personal way! Mail the letter to students before school starts, and enclose a sheet of stationery for kids to write you back.

Each piece should have a matching piece of the same length. There should be enough pieces so that each student will have one. Then give each student one piece of string, and challenge each student to find the other student who has a string of the same length. After students find their matches, they can take turns introducing themselves to one another. You can provide a list of questions to help students "break the ice," or students can come up with their own.

You might extend the activity by having each student introduce his or her partner to the class. Give each student a slip of paper with the name of an animal on it. Then give students instructions for the activity: They must locate the other members of their animal group by imitating that animal's sound only. No talking is allowed.

The students might hesitate initially, but that hesitation soon gives way to a cacophony of sound as the kids moo, snort, and giggle their way into groups. The end result is that students have found their way into their homerooms or advisory groups for the school year, and the initial barriers to good teamwork have already been broken.

Hold a large ball of yarn. Start by telling the students something about yourself. Then roll the ball of yarn to a student without letting go of the end of the yarn. The student who gets the ball of yarn tells his or her name and something good about himself or herself. Then the student rolls the yarn to somebody else, holding on to the strand of yarn.

Soon students have created a giant web. After everyone has spoken, you and all the students stand up, continuing to hold the yarn. Start a discussion of how this activity relates to the idea of teamwork -- for example, the students need to work together and not let others down. To drive home your point about teamwork, have one student drop his or her strand of yarn; that will demonstrate to students how the web weakens if the class isn't working together.

Questions might include the following: What is your name? Where were you born? How many brothers or sisters do you have? What are their names? Do you have any pets? Tell students to write those questions on a piece of paper and to add to that paper five more questions they could ask someone they don't know. Pair students, and have each student interview his or her partner and record the responses. Then have each student use the interview responses to write a "dictionary definition" of his or her partner to include in a Student Dictionary.

You might model this activity by creating a sample dictionary definition about yourself. Born in Riverside, California.

No brothers or sisters. Have students bring in small pictures of themselves to paste next to their entries in the Student Dictionary. Bind the definitions into a book, and display it at back-to-school night.

Although the average age of our students is between 35 to 40, we have qualified students well outside that age range, the oldest being 69 years old. We select our students on an equal opportunities basis: I am an overseas student, is there anything else I need to consider?

When you have an offer of a place on our courses it is your responsibility to organise your tourist visa at the Thai Embassy or Consulate , your accommodation in Chiangmai and your transport before the start of training. If English is not your first language you will need to convince us that you are capable of undertaking this training in English because you will need to take a lot of notes. Please note that accommodation expenses at local clean guesthouses amount to approx.

Can I get any financial help with the course fees? Yes, although we are not a state-funded organisation, we do provide a deferred payment system for those students that find the total course fees to be a challenge. We usually require a minimum deposit of 20, THB. The balance can be settled by regular installments over the next 12 months. Who teaches the courses? Graduates tell us that this opportunity to access the teachers' combined wisdom and skills is invaluable to them in developing their own approach to practice.

The Reiki trainings are given by several teachers. I still need to earn a living during the training. Sorry, this is not possible in Thailand where Work Permit Regulations are rather stringent. ABET courses are normally given only twice a year during a period of 2 months each. Study consists of lectures, clinical and practical experience, and daily home study of several hours. We teach from 9. What do you teach? The full ABET training consists of a total theoretical training of hours plus at least 30 hours of clinical practice or observation.

ABET will help you to diagnose health problems in yourself and others and make the appropriate recommendations for minor life style change to achieve major life quality improvements.

We go step by step. This description highlights only a small number of ways of using ABET but, if you think of it as a toolbox , what is important is to be able to use all the tools in your toolbox skillfully. In its authentic form, ABET uses many tools, as and when they are called for and without conscious separation.

This, therefore, is how we teach them, and you will be fully equipped to practice all of them. We believe that this relationship is of vital importance. You will be encouraged to develop a deep understanding of your patients and of your own practice through sharing your observations and reflections and through receiving one-to-one guidance.

You will learn how to use your new knowledge and skills to make good and effective relationships with patients. This adaptation of ancient wisdom to modern-day relationships is exciting and inspirational even to those already experienced in working with people. You will learn how to focus your treatment on the original cause of the health problems and encourage your patients to change some of their lifestyles as required by their health condition.

In the process, you will learn a great deal about yourself, and this self-understanding will be woven back into your practice as increased skill and understanding of the patient. Will I change as a person? You may find that your work on the ABET and Reiki trainings brings up personal issues that need your attention. We encourage and support you in this work, as we often find that personal development goes hand in hand with your evolution into a self-aware and effective practitioner.

Will I be able to make a living when I graduate? Potential students often ask this question - for obvious reasons! We encourage our students to work out exactly what they want and to go for that: We believe that if you continue to focus strongly and talk enthusiastically to people about what you do, your practice will thrive. We recognise that perhaps one of the most difficult times for our students is when they leave and begin to practice. We provide just the right amount of hand-holding and, by the time our students leave us, they are delighted with their independence and confident about their competence.

In more and more western countries, t he Health Ministries are working with the acupuncture and herb professions to establish a system of legal regulation that will safeguard the public interest.

We welcome this because it will mean a well-deserved increase in credibility. However, keep in mind that neither in ABET nor in Reiki, do we prescribe any herbs or perform any body invasion procedures like with acupuncture needles. I have covered part of TCM training elsewhere, can I claim exemption? The short answer is sorry but no. We nevertheless like to receive a copy of your academic record and life experience. Can I buy any TCM books through your organisation?

Sorry, no we do not offer this service. As a matter of fact, we prefer that you do not read any books about TCM, which may only confuse you when you are training with us. Will I have to sit lots of written exams? ABET is a practical skill and, where appropriate, we teach and assess your work practically and daily. For example, a point location class is taught by marking points on real bodies, usually your own or those of your classmates! You will also be assessed practically and are only taught in small groups with close supervision.

Likewise, when you are in clinical environment, you will be taught and assessed in a very practical way. A more theoretical unit, such as Chinese Medicine Theory, is taught in a more lecture-based format and is assessed using a basic written exam and projects during and after the training.

We always tailor the assessment to suit the subject being learnt. Contact us to schedule classes from Monday through Friday. Organic Compost Making Classes. If you have a lot of garden refuse and you want to make your own beautiful compost like this,.

During one day of training. Tuition costs are Baht per person for a minimum of 3 participants or Baht for one-on-one training These tuition fees which support our charity activities, include a vegetarian lunch and a detailed training manual.

Please contact us for more details. To support our project , you can buy our sieved Pyramid organic compost at Baht per bag of 10 kilos. You can also buy the wonderful organic rice which we receive from the organic farmers in exchange for the free compost we gave them when planting their rice.

The Heat-loving bacteria that make compost need oxygen. To achieve this, you can pile in some coarse materials like hay when building the compost pile. This will create little pockets of air, or you can make some holes in the pile with pipes or sticks every 10 days, fill it with water and close the holes again.

The main fertilizer farmers now use is Urea which contains just nitrogen but this is harmful for the ecology. It is a key ingredient in organic farming. The process of composting simply requires making a pile of wetted organic matter leaves, "green" food waste and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of weeks or months. Modern composting methods use a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials.

This Pyramid system is by far the easiest and fastest way to make compost, involving very little labour and time and generating an excellent, nutrient rich compost with a pleasant earthly smell within two months. This stopped farmers to make compost themselves. So they bought the chemical fertilizer as it takes less time and would therefore be cheaper. But it is more dangerous for the ecology. The Pyramid compost is more environment friendly and will strengthen the plants to fight off attacks from bugs etc.

We also want to avoid the harm form vermicomposting which uses food scraps and human faeces which may contain some diseases that may not be killed by the old compost technique. Compost is rich in nutrients and used in gardens , landscaping , horticulture , and agriculture. The compost itself is beneficial for the land, especially as a soil conditioner , a fertilizer , addition of vital humus or humic acids , and as a natural pesticide for soil.

In ecosystems, compost is used for erosion control , land and stream reclamation, wetland construction, and as landfill cover. Organic ingredients for composting can also be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is fast overtaking composting in some parts of the world especially central Europe as a primary means of downcycling waste organic matter. Free Compost for Rice Project in Chiangmai During these last few months, we have all seen the political conflicts in Thailand.

The farmers are now really suffering as the government did not pay them for the rice they bought. The next planting season has started and the farmers in our Huaysaai district have no money to buy what they need. They will end up being more indebted…. How can I support our community farmers as I do not have millions of Baht and little power. This is a lot of pressure for everyone. For a long time, I have been a consultant for the Organic Farmers Group and during the past four years, with the support from Maejo University, I have been making a great quality organic compost using organic garden refuse, rice husks and dried cowdung.

This has considerably helped to reduce open burning in my community. Last year, I started a new project to supply our free organic compost to the organic rice farmers in exchange for a share of future rice crops on condition that farmers do not use any chemicals on their fields. This season, I received over kgs of excellent quality black rice and Jasmine brown rice.

Now, I want to sell these wonderful products to finance the next production of compost. This way I can continue to support the farmers who do not burn their fields and do not use chemicals. And I can continue to sell their rice while they focus on growing it. Our prices are very reasonable for this excellent quality: This does not include the delivery cost which is payable upon receipt and will depend on the quantity ordered If you want to help Thai organic farmers, please buy their rice.

This bottle exhibits evidence of early machine manufacture in that it has relatively crude wavy glass, multiple small bubbles, and uneven base glass distribution.

Illustration courtesy of California State Parks. Other similar examples are known to date to the early s Lunn These earlier examples typically have a crudely applied "club sauce" finish, were probably blown in a post-bottom mold, and lack evidence of air venting. These bottles contained Halford's Table Sauce which was advertised in as follows: An absolute Remedy for Dyspepsia.

Invaluable to all Good Cooks. A Nutritious Combination for Children. Even meat sauce claimed medicinal properties in the 19th century! This bottle has a crudely applied club sauce style finish, was blown in a post-bottom mold, and likely had no evidence of mold air venting - all features supporting a manufacturing date of about to These bottles were likely manufactured in England during the noted period as American and English bottle making technology at that time was roughly on a par with each other Zumwalt ; empirical observations.

Click on the following links for more images of this club sauce bottle: The author has observed them in the trash dumps ranging from the fanciest big city hotels to isolated sheep camps in the Great Basin. They came in at least three sizes - half pint probably the most common size , pint, and quart although the two larger sizes at least were likely "scant" sizes, i.

Later mouth-blown bottles are embossed on the base with J D S and usually a mold number like the machine-made bottle discussed above. Some of these late mouth-blown bottles were reportedly made in England - possibly by Aire and Calder or Albion or possibly neither Toulouse An image of a different club sauce style bottle is available by clicking on the following link: Given the wide span of production for this style, i.

Please note that these dating parameters pertain to bottles found in the U. Click midth century snuff bottle to see an example. Mustard was most commonly packaged in stylized "barrel" shaped bottles from the midth century until well into the 20th.

Mustard was also thought to be a cure for ailments ranging from congestion to hysteria, snakebite to bubonic plague Gerth Although bottled in a variety of wide mouth, typically squatty bottles, mustard was commonly bottled in barrel shapes for much of the time period covered by this website. Barrel mustard bottles - based on glassmaker catalogs and the authors empirical observations - are dominated by those with 3 molded rings aka staves, bands above and below the central label area, like the examples pictured here.

Other conformations ranging from 2 to at least 6 rings have also been noted as well as some with vertical staves. Most examples have rings that are separated by a distinct space, like the example above left. Mustard was also packaged in other shapes of ceramic and glass bottles examples discussed below though the barrel shape is the most closely associated with the product Switzer ; Zumwalt See pages of the Illinois Glass Company catalog which offered the standard barrel as well as about a dozen other shapes, including one that was beer mug shaped!

The image to the right above is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog page and shows their barrel mustard offering left barrel bottle available in 6 sizes and what is likely the second most common general shape of that era for containing mustard - the "pot mustard" right bottle.

Barrel mustards are typified by the fairly uniform shapes shown here. Glass makers catalogs, including the Illinois Glass Company, referred to these bottles as "barrel mustards" and offered them sizes ranging from 3 oz.

By , the barrel mustards were being offered with screw thread finishes for the "American Metal Cap" by the Illinois Glass Company and cork finish examples were apparently no longer available Illinois Glass Co. This appears to be so because the surface area against the cork increases allowing more opportunity for the cork to not fit well Lief Interestingly enough, the Illinois Glass Company catalog noted that their barrel mustard style could " Some type of agreement with competitors?

The barrel mustard pictured above is an 8 oz. It has a tooled one-part finish more or less a "wide patent" or "bead" type , made from colorless glass with a slight amethyst tint, blown in a cup-bottom mold although with no obvious evidence of mold air venting making the likely production date between and Click on the following links to view more images of this typical size and design bottle: This mold seam ending point marks the furthest point on the "neck" that the outside pads of the finishing tool could reach.

These bottles were usually made of colorless or aqua glass; very rarely in other colors. Click on base view to view an image of the base of this bottle which exhibits a faint blowpipe type pontil scar pointed out in image though the scar has a diffuseness to it that is reminiscent of a sand pontil. The bottle body has no evidence of air venting and was blown in a post-bottom mold although the side mold seam just barely curls around the heel to join with an apparent post-bottom mold seam.

Click s screw top example to see such. Very similar shaped mustard bottles of French origin with pontil scars were found on the Steamship Bertrand which sank in the Missouri River in April These mustard bottles were among the very few bottle types salvaged from that ship that exhibited pontil scars when this author viewed the collection in Iowa recently empirical observations The Bertrand mustards were a bit unusual in that they had 4 closely stacked rings instead of three spaced ones, though the rings were in the usual positions above and below the open label area Switzer It also has a very crudely cracked-off or burst-off finish with just a bit of grinding done to the finish rim to keep from being dangerously sharp.

Western Spice Mills was a St. Gothic style pepper sauce bottles with this company name embossed were found on the Steamship Bertrand and on the Steamboat Arabia which sank in the Missouri River in Although early information on the company is sparse it obviously dated as far back as and is known to have continued in business until at least Switzer ; Zumwalt ; Hawley Aqua was certainly the second most common color for this style, though still lags behind colorless glass which was for some reason the standard "color" of choice for mustard bottling.

This was true even prior to the s when colorless bottles were relatively uncommon as they were more expensive to produce than aqua glass empirical observations. Other images of barrel and non-barrel mustard bottles are available by clicking on the following links. Many different shapes were used for the packaging of mustard, though the stylized barrel shape is the most closely associated with mustard for much of the time period covered by this website. Unfortunately for dating utility based on shape the barrel mustard style was made a very long time, i.

A few type specific general dating observations are possible with barrel mustards: It should be noted that these types of barrel bottles were occasionally used for other condiments like horseradish and likely for various spices also. Conversely, the "spice" bottle style covered later on this page was also commonly used for mustard during the last half of the 19th century Zumwalt However, sauces were packaged in a wide array of additional shapes during the period covered by this website, i.

Refer to Betty Zumwalt's very informative book Ketchup, Pickles, Sauces - 19th Century Food in Glass for more information on the subject and images of some of this variety. A few unusual sauce shapes were covered in the ketchup bottles section above; shapes which were likely used for non-ketchup sauce products also. For a sampling of the sauce bottle variety offered by one early 20th century bottle manufacturer, click Illinois Glass Company catalog which is a page comprised of scans of that company's entire catalog.

In particular, look at pages through The following are examples of a few other sauce or condiment styles including for ketchup to show the variety. As with most of these bottle typology pages, more examples will be added over time. This appears to be an early example of cup-bottom mold use and may indicate a later manufacture notwithstanding the presence of the pontil scar and overall crudity which speaks of a pre manufacture. It is also possible that this bottle was used for some other totally different product possibly a "specialty" barber bottle or used for liquor though it has similarity in general form to fancier sauce bottles Zumwalt The general shape described and pictured here, with the bulge or ring at the junction of the neck and shoulder, was a favored type container for dispensing horse radish.

This general style was also used for a variety of other food products which needed a wide mouth for content access and are virtually identical to some of the "pickle" bottles discussed next Zumwalt It is square in cross-section, has a tooled one-part bead finish, was blown in a cup-bottom mold, and has one apparent mold air venting mark incorporated into the side mold seams at the same spot on opposite shoulders. Click base view to see such. The body has some crudity sunken and wavy glass that in hand with the other diagnostic features indicates a likely late s to the early s manufacture.

A check of Zumwalt shows this specific bottle covered under the section for D. Geer, even though the bottle the example pictured here and in Zumwalt's book is embossed with H. Originally this was thought to be a mold engravers error in switching the initials around. Since the initial writing of this section, the author has been in correspondence with a descendant of the Geer family and has been informed that there were two different Geer's in the food packaging industry in Massachusetts - David H.

Geer , whom is discussed in Zumwalt, and Henry Denison Geer who was born in and listed as a "farmer and fruit grower" in Three Rivers, Massachusetts - and the real user of this bottle pers. Flaccus was first listed as in business in and operated until The stag's head trademark was registered in but noted that it had been "used ten years" at that time Zumwalt ; Caniff These features give a likely manufacture date of to or so. After the latter date, the majority of all wide mouth bottles were being made by machines, although these types were being machine-made at least as early as and probably a bit before Illinois Glass Co.

The pictured bottle has no diagnostic embossing and is solely identified by the label without which the bottle could not be positively identified as this style was used for various preserved food products, as noted earlier. The general shapes described here square and rectangular were used for horse radish until well into the 20th century.

Bottle makers catalogs from the s, s and s indicate the style was still in use, though by the late s and early s the finish had shifted to the increasingly more popular external screw threads. By the end of the s virtually all bottles of this style had external screw thread finishes.

The ring at the juncture of the neck and shoulder did carry forward as an stylistic indicator of a horse radish bottle until the s Illinois Glass Co.

Like most bottle types listed on this page, the dating of most sauce and condiment bottles in general can not be done based on shape alone. Return to the top of this page. Next to the discovery of fire, some of the more important inventions to mankind were the development of techniques for the long term preservation of food without rapid spoiling.

One other trait this class of bottles share with each other is that they tend to be much larger than average capacity compared to other types of bottles, though as a user will see, smaller versions were utilized for smaller quantities or for food products that were individually smaller in unit size e.

Be aware also that just about any of the bottles listed in this section could have been - and were - used for any of the above noted food products and many more not listed; only an original label tells for sure, some of which are shown below.

These designs originated during the midth century "Gothic Revival" era in American and Europe which greatly effected the architecture of the period Deiss , pers. Click close-up of gothic decorations to view some typical features.

As noted earlier in the sauce section, glassmakers called these style bottles "gothic. Gothic pickle bottles are a very commonly observed item usually fragmental on mid to late 19th century historic sites more rarely on early 20th century sites although the type is most commonly observed on historic sites dating from the late s to early s through mids Switzer ; Zumwalt ; Deiss ; Gerth ; empirical observations.

Being a container for relatively perishable food products, these bottles were usually discarded shortly after use though as with most bottles during that era, re-use was variably common Busch ; click HERE to view this reference. Like with the gothic peppersauce bottles covered earlier, these type pickle bottles also were made in square and hexagonal versions as well as with scores of different and often very subtle decorative design differences.

One of the earliest of the gothic pickle styles are the bottles like pictured to the right. These distinctively squatty wider in the body than later examples gothic pickles are attributed to the West Willington Glass Works CT and are referred to by collectors as "Willington pickles.

In fact, examples identical in form to the pictured one though amber in color are attributed to the Westford Glass Works , Westford, CT. These bottles are pontil scared, have the type typical rolled and tooled one-part "bead finishes" described more below and were most likely blown in a key or hinge mold actual examples have not been observed closely by the author.

These bottles date from approximately the early to mids to mids. The two sizes 9" and 7. Both have elaborate crisscross lattice work in the large lower body and smaller shoulder panels on three sides; the fourth side had the label and does not have the lattice.

Both have iron or improved pontil scars on the base, typical for the style rolled and tooled one-part "bead" finishes, lack any evidence of mold air venting, and were blown in key base hinge molds. Fragmental examples of gothic pickle bottles with this particular ornate design were found on the site of the Crowleytown Glass Works aka Atlantic Glass Works in New Jersey indicating that these bottles were likely made at that location which was in operation from to This style is also commonly found on Civil War campsites Russell The relatively ornate, square pickle bottle pictured to the left was most likely made between and It was blown in a post-bottom mold an unusual square mold post plate with no evidence of air venting and has no evidence of a pontil scar on the base.

It also has a type-typical rolled finish which was formed by reheating glass at the shearing or cracking-off point and then rolling the pliable glass out and back on the extreme upper part of the neck with some type of glassworkers tool. It is sometimes hard to tell on these type finishes if it was formed from separately applied glass or by just working the reheated existing glass at the blowpipe removal point.

In the case of this pickle bottle and all the square ones pictured on this page there is no evidence of the interface edge that one usually but not always can see or feel when separate glass was applied. This particular bottle has decorative "pillars" on the sides of the large body panels near the corners with a "capital" or crowning feature at the top of the "pillar" - a feature more typical of many earlier pre or so gothic pickles. Click on the following links to see more images of this bottle: This particular bottle has a rolled possibly applied?

This is keeping with the observation that as the last third of the 19th century progressed the complexity of design decreased on gothic bottles in general. Click on the following links to view more images of this pickle bottle: The very large 13" tall with an approximate 1. The pictured illustration is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog and is almost identical in shape and size including the shoulder design and the "scallop" effect at the bottom of the indented body panels. These large bottles with their makers mark I.

Virtually identical examples of these large pickle bottles with M. These bottles were most likely made by the Mississippi Glass Co. Apparently, this particular style was made by an assortment of different glass companies and originated at least as early as the Civil War and continued until at least as mouth-blown items.

The author has observed an example with an iron pontil scar but none that were machine-made Fairmount Glass Works ; Cumberland Glass Co. Click on the following links to view more images of the above pictured bottle: However, some type specific dating observations are possible: Gothic pickle and similar fancy food bottles appear to have a relatively wide range of transition from pontil scarred to non-pontil scarred bases i.

Specifically, some "luxury" food bottles including "pale-green preserve jars" and a "fluted pickle jar" from the James Mathews , which sank of the coast of Australia in , were reported to be not pontil scarred Boow However, items on that ship were almost certainly not American made. However, none of the gothic pickle bottles on the Steamship Bertrand - which sank about 7 months earlier on April 1, - were reported to be pontil scarred though a few other food bottle types were Switzer This likely supports the notion that the pickle bottles from the two American ships were the products of different glass companies which had different transition times for the switch to snap case tools.

The point here is that the transition time from pontil rods to snap case tools was long and glassmaker and maybe regionally specific. Analogous to gothic pepper sauce bottles, there was a trend over time for the body width of square gothic pickle type bottles to narrow slightly.

That is, the earliest square examples approx. This is a trend that was common with many bottles types [e. This subtle trend is shown reasonably well in a comparison of this sections photos. Although this trend is real and can be observed, it is a dating diagnostic feature hard to apply without extensive experience with these type bottles. There is a noticeable - though surely not absolute - trend towards less ornate embossing for square gothic pickles as time progressed during the last third of the 19th century.

More specifically, a trend towards simplification in the form of an absence of the pillar and crown feature on the body panel edges seemed to have occurred sometime in the s; gothic pickles after that time rarely if ever have that feature.

This appears to have been followed in the late s or early s with the general loss of the decorative details in the upper portions of the body panels, although the author has noted some earlier pontiled blowpipe and iron styles examples ss that also have such simplified decorative features.

Remember, just about nothing in the historic bottle world is absolute! These typically later examples bluish aqua bottle on the left side of the left image above have simplified to the point that the only gothic decorative features - besides the peaked body panels - are on the shoulders framing the arching top of those panels, including a fleur de les like detail at the highest point. All four of the pictured gothic pickle bottles are approximately 11" to Click close-up of gothic decorations to view a close-up of the two older bottles which points out the decorative panel edge pillar and crown feature as well as other decorative features.

This decorative simplification trend has not been noted for the large hexagonal gothic pickles which stayed surprisingly similar for upwards of 50 years, i. Hexagonal mouth-blown gothic pickles, which appear to have been manufactured later into the early s than the square examples, have applied finishes if made prior to about and tooled finishes after that period.

This is in keeping with the bottle style specific finishing observation that larger bottles 10" and taller or with wide bodies tended to move from true applied finishes to tooled finishes later than small to medium sized bottles.

Square gothic pickles appear to have all but disappeared during the s and all examples observed by the author had rolled or applied finishes empirical observations. It should be noted that square bodied pickle bottles continued to be extremely popular after that time though appear to rarely if ever have molded gothic decorative features after the late s.

Square, non-gothic pickle bottles are discussed after the round ones below. The cigar smoking entrepreneurs in the ca. Some idea of the variety offered can be seen in the Illinois Glass Co. Catalog to view these pages. The more or less one quart sized example to the left is quite typical of the cylindrical food bottle type - large bodied, relatively short necked with a wide bore and simple one-part finish, though later machine-made examples late s and later had external screw thread finishes.

Canning jars are covered later on this page. The earliest cylindrical food jars used in the U. Another early - though likely midth century - utility or generic aqua food jar is pictured to the far right.

Click base view to see the blowpipe type pontil scar on the base of that jar. These jars were most likely sealed with a large cork and wax, though could have been sealed with other primitive methods as outlined early on the Bottle Closures page. This was a large Boston based food packing company of which there were many that was established as a corner grocery store in and quickly blossomed to "Importers and Grocers" producing and importing scores of products; they were still in business as late as Zumwalt This style was called an "English chow," "English pickle," or "chow chow" by bottle makers though was obviously used for other foods Illinois Glass Co.

This particular jar has an applied, one-part "wide packer" or "wide patent" finish, was blown in a post-bottom mold, and has single shoulder air venting marks on each side.

This item likely dates from between the late s and Jars used today for pickled products trace their heritage to these type items. Click on the following links for more views of the S. The tall olive bottle to the left is product labeled indicating it contained "Queen Olives" and was produced by Francis H. The company began business in and also continued until at least Zumwalt The base has the embossing F.

This bottle has a tooled one-part finish, was blown in a post-bottom mold with no obvious evidence of mold air venting, and is somewhat crudely made e. These diagnostic features would indicate a probable manufacturing date between the mid to lates to mid to lates. However, this bottle design with the ribbed lower body was patented by Leggett on February 26th, giving a good begin date i. Other examples of these tall bottles have the actual patent date embossed on the base Caniff Click Leggett patent to see that patent.

Similar items were offered by many bottle makers who called them an "taper olive," "obelisk olive," "vase olive," "queen olive," "tall round olive," and other names Illinois Glass Co. The tall, narrow bottle pictured to the right represents a very common olive bottle style that appears to have originated in the very early s - or possibly late s - and was popular through at least the early s.

This style first seems to have appeared as a late mouth-blown item although machine-made examples are much more commonly encountered and likely first occurred around This wide mouth style is a type most easily adapted to the new semi-automatic machines that were becoming increasingly common in the early s Illinois Glass Co.

The footed olive appears to have continued into at least the early s, though seem to be uncommon after that time as other more straight, uninterrupted sided with no shoulder constriction ridge styles became more popular Fairmount Glass ca.

It also has the "H over an A" makers mark for the Hazel-Atlas Glass Company Wheeling, WV which began using that mark in and continued until at least the mids Lockhart unpublished manuscript For an example of a similar mouth-blown example ca. During the era covered by this website, there were likely thousands of uniquely different cylindrical food bottles produced by glass makers in the U.

Some feel for the variety of this category can be found in the Illinois Glass Co. Catalog to view those pages. Square is also the most common cross-section shape for gothic pickle bottles - a category covered earlier.

Although less commonly encountered than cylindrical versions, the earliest square food jars were typically dip molded, very crude with pontil scarred bases and had minimally worked or manipulated flared or rolled finishes, similar to the jars described in the cylindrical section above. However, the bore with a wide, flat cork in place was manually widened and flared outwards with glass makers tools to form a square, wide mouth jar. Forgive the poor picture off the internet.

Click wide mouth case bottle base to see the tubular blowpipe type pontil scar on the base. Probably the most common general shape for square, mouth-blown, non-gothic style pickle bottles are illustrated by the bottles pictured to the left above and below. These bottles are relatively tall and moderate in body diameter, have four flattened body sides that have rounded arching tops, a steep inwardly tapering shoulder that stops at a relatively wide, bulging ring forming the base of the neck.

These pickle bottles are obviously similar to the gothic examples discussed earlier except that they have none of the decorative features the gothic bottles have, including an absence of indented body panels. This simplified square style appears to have gradually displaced the square gothic bottles during the s empirical observations.

This style went under an assortment of glass maker proprietary mold names like the "Standard," "American" or "Tennessee style" pickle Illinois Glass Co. For simplicity, these are called ring-neck pickles - a term used by collectors for the style. Sizes ranged from about half a pint 8 oz.

The size name being significantly larger than the actual capacities was known as a "scant" size, with the matching of the name and the capacity being a "full measure" size Thomas Wightman Glass ca. The aqua, square, labeled 9" tall ring-neck pickle to the above left notes on the label that it was "packed by" Sebastian Duncan, Jr. New York - company history unknown. This bottle has a tooled wide patent or packer finish with a 1. It was blown in a cup-bottom mold indicating that it was likely an early 20th century to mids mouth-blown item.

Observations by the author of mouth-blown pickle bottles has indicated that those made after about usually have a cup-bottom mold conformation; those made prior to that time usually have a post-bottom mold conformation. See the Bottle Bases page for more information. Click on view of the base and sides to view the base and sides showing vaguely the cup-bottom mold conformation. The very tall It has a crudely applied bead finish and was blown in a post-bottom mold air venting status unknown indicating manufacture between about and These later bottles post are usually colorless glass with aqua glass generally disappearing with the advent of broad scale fully automatic machine manufacture, like with most bottle types.

After about the mids, different shapes - typically cylindrical or oval in cross-section - became more popular and the square, ring-neck pickle bottle largely disappeared Fairmount ca.

The rectangular mouth-blown "sweet pickle" bottle pictured to the right has a tooled one-part finish, was blown in a cup-bottom mold, and has some mold air venting in evidence - all of which would indicate a to manufacture. In addition, the base is embossed with K.

This bottle has a finish that appears to be able to accept a capseat closure. However, Kearns-Gorsuch produced a proprietary closure for food bottles that they called the "Spring Top" closure. It was designed to fit the type of finish on this bottle, which otherwise looks like a capseat finish. Click spring top closure to view the pages from the Kearns-Gorsuch catalog that illustrate this closure.

Examples similar to the rectangular, ring-neck style pictured to the left were also made by most other food bottle making glass companies from the late 19th century until the midth century; with even more modern versions of these bottles still made today. For example the Illinois Glass Company's ca. The Fairmount Glass Works offered the same basic shape "flat oblong pickle jar" in their early s catalog with a wide mouth "crown finish.

It should be noted that this style was often used for horse radish; a subject covered earlier on this page. During the era covered by this website, there were likely thousands of different sometimes subtly but still a different mold square and rectangular food bottles produced by glass makers in the U.

Canning jars were acquired by consumers in several different ways. Possibly the most common way was likely outright purchase for home canning use. A lesser known though significant way of getting into the home was that canning jars were also frequently purchased by the food packing trade and sold to consumers with various food products packed inside.

Click on the following links to see an example of a LAFAYETTE fruit jar an example is pictured to the far right in the image above that was used by a food packer for pickles: This jar type dates from the first half of that period as it was first patented in and was likely produced no later than the s as it is fairly rarely encountered [Leybourne ].

As an example, the jar group image above shows a small assortment of unusual mid to late 19th century closures. Photo courtesy of Greg Spurgeon Antiques. In general, all canning jars typically share three binding attributes: An extremely large majority of canning jars are also cylindrical round in cross-section as that is the strongest shape all things being otherwise equal, e.

There are exceptions of course, including some square jars and even those that were multi-paneled, ranging from 6 to 12 sides. Square bodied jars with rounded off corners were almost exclusively a 20th century feature, with just a very few late 19th century exceptions Roller ; Creswick For example, canning jars were almost certainly the first glass containers to be commonly made by machines semi-automatic beginning in the early to mid s.

The following is a list of manufacturing based diagnostic features - including the estimated dating ranges - that illustrate these differences and help with canning jar dating: Wax sealing glass food containers were reportedly first used for local home based food processing in Europe by and in the U.

The simple round metal cap closure images to right and left is integrally linked with the groove ring wax seal finish. These groove ring wax seal finishes, regardless of the specific manufacturing method used discussed later , appear when looking down at the rim of the finish to be two circular and parallel ridges with an indented groove separating them.

This groove was called an "annular groove" by early glassmakers. The rounded outside edge of the finish slopes down and towards the upper neck.

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