In the s William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acids , necessary protein components which the body cannot synthesize. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated as suggested by Pasteur to control bacterial disease. WHO global database of anemia. The degree of causation is still not clear. Moreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in food particularly in fresh vegetables , which may have desirable properties including antioxidant activity see below ; experimental demonstration has been suggestive but inconclusive.
For example, in the Philippines , improved production and market availability of iodized salt increased household consumption.
Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging. In many schools a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments.
In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes. Nutrition is offered at many schools, and if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthy food choices and how to live a healthy life.
The protein requirement for each individual differs, as do opinions about whether and to what extent physically active people require more protein. The Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA , aimed at the general healthy adult population, provide for an intake of 0.
The main fuel used by the body during exercise is carbohydrates, which is stored in muscle as glycogen — a form of sugar. Adequate nutrition is essential for the growth of children from infancy right through until adolescence. Some nutrients are specifically required for growth on top of nutrients required for normal body maintenance, in particular calcium and iron. Malnutrition in general is higher among the elderly, but has different aspects in developed and undeveloped countries. Humans have evolved as omnivorous hunter-gatherers over the past , years.
The diet of early modern humans varied significantly depending on location and climate. The diet in the tropics tended to depend more heavily on plant foods, while the diet at higher latitudes tended more towards animal products.
Analyses of postcranial and cranial remains of humans and animals from the Neolithic, along with detailed bone-modification studies, have shown that cannibalism also occurred among prehistoric humans.
Agriculture developed about 10, years ago in multiple locations throughout the world, providing grains such as wheat , rice and maize and potatoes ; and originating staples such as bread and pasta dough  , and tortillas.
Farming also provided milk and dairy products, and sharply increased the availability of meats and the diversity of vegetables. Around BC the Vedic texts made mention of scientific research on nutrition. The Bible's Book of Daniel recounts first recorded nutritional experiment. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine. But they objected, preferring vegetables pulses and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions.
The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. On comparison with the king's men, they appeared healthier, and were allowed to continue with their diet. The 16th-century scientist and artist Leonardo da Vinci — compared metabolism to a burning candle. James Lind , a physician in the British navy, performed the first attested scientific nutrition experiment, discovering that lime juice saved sailors who had been at sea for years from scurvy , a deadly and painful bleeding disorder.
The discovery was ignored [ by whom? Scientists would not identify the essential vitamin C within lime juice until the s. Around Antoine Lavoisier , the "Father of Nutrition and Chemistry", discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat.
In George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for fowl survival. In the early 19th century, the elements carbon , nitrogen , hydrogen and oxygen were recognized [ by whom? In François Magendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates and fat lost their body protein and died in a few weeks, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component.
In the s Claude Bernard discovered that body fat can be synthesized from carbohydrate and protein, showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored as fat or as glycogen. Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease. In Eugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. In , Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java , who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi, but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact.
Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, demonstrating that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B. In the early 20th century Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition.
In , Wilcock and Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan was necessary for the survival of rats. A second group of rats to which he also fed an amount of milk containing vitamins.
In Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart conducted the single-grain experiment. This experiment ran through In Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin to label a vital factor in the diet: The vitamins were studied [ by whom? In Elmer McCollum discovered the first vitamins, fat-soluble vitamin A and water-soluble vitamin B in ; later identified as a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy.
Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Osborne — also performed pioneering work on vitamins A and B. In Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency, because he could cure it in dogs with cod-liver oil. Also in , H.
Bishop discovered vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, and originally called it "food factor X" until In Hart discovered that iron absorption requires trace amounts of copper. In Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated ascorbic acid , and in proved that it is vitamin C by preventing scurvy. In he synthesized it, and in won a Nobel Prize for his efforts. Szent-Györgyi concurrently elucidated much of the citric acid cycle. In the s William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acids , necessary protein components which the body cannot synthesize.
In Eric Underwood and Hedley Marston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt. In Eugene Floyd Dubois showed that work and school performance relate to caloric intake. In Erhard Fernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin E. It was synthesised by Paul Karrer — From rationing in the United Kingdom — during and after World War II — took place according to nutritional principles drawn up by Elsie Widdowson and others.
In the U. Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid. In a Natural Justice study showed a relation between nutrition and violent behavior. In a study found that in addition to bad nutrition, adenovirus may cause obesity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For nutrition science not specific to humans, see Nutrition.
Overnutrition , Obesity , and Overweight. Underweight , Food security , and Epidemiology of malnutrition. Food portal Health and fitness portal. A Report Card on Nutrition No. Retrieved March 31, Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition 2.
Nutrient Intakes and Physical Measurements". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry 4th ed. New York, New York: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies" Full text. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.
Kathleen Mahan; Janice L. Raymond; Sylvia Escott-Stump Krausw's Food and the Nutrition Care Process 13th ed. An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology 5th ed. Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal.
Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 8 October Acta Biol Med Ger. The World Bank Research Observer. The American College Health Association".
Journal of American College Health. Journal of Public Economics. Chronicle of Higher Education. The vertical integration of food for thought". Cancer no longer rare in poorer countries". Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.
Retrieved November 3, Geneva, World Health Organization. Rapid progress in child survival". Retrieved 28 May World health statistics An updated systematic analysis for with time trends since ". Global Burden of Disease Study". Explicit use of et al. The achievable imperative for global progress. The state of food insecurity in the world Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. Global financial and economic crisis — The most vulnerable are at increased risk of hunger and malnutrition.
United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition. Global Monitoring Report Food prices, nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases ". A guide for program managers. Assessment, prevention, and control. Worldwide prevalence of anemia — WHO global database of anemia.
Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Geneva, WHO, http: Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk — Archived from the original PDF on WHO Global database of vitamin A deficiency.
New York, Oxford University Press, p. New England Journal of Medicine. Report of the expert consultation on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Control of iron deficiency in industrialized countries". The Journal of Nutrition.
Global and regional exposures and health consequences". The Millennium Development Goals report New York, United Nations. Public health action for healthier children and populations" PDF. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3: In Ira Wolinsky, Judy A. Energy metabolism and exercise.
Sergio Guzzardi published The first two certain dates in the history of pasta in Italy are: Nutrition, history of nutrition and scope of nutrition" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on August 24, Food was sacred — hence eating was a sacred act. Food is magical — cooking was a magico-religous [sic] activity, every gesture, act and dish perhaps, endowed with ritual significance.
United States National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on February 4, American Journal of Physiology. Find more about Human nutrition at Wikipedia's sister projects. Auxology Biological hazard Chief Medical Officer Cultural competence Deviance Environmental health Euthenics Genomics Globalization and disease Health economics Health literacy Health policy Health system Health care reform Public health law Maternal health Medical anthropology Medical sociology Mental health Pharmaceutical policy Public health intervention Public health laboratory Reproductive health Social psychology Sociology of health and illness.
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Category Commons Cookbook Food portal, Health and fitness portal. Retrieved from " https: Applied sciences Food science Home economics Nutrition Self care. Canada's Food Guide is an example of a government-run nutrition program. Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs.
Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups. Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government.
Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U. The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education. It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being.
Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families.
It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise. Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales , the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging.
In many schools, a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments. In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes.
Nutrition is offered at many schools, and, if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthful food choices, portion sizes, and how to live a healthy life. In the US, Registered dietitian nutritionists RDs or RDNs  are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan.
They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs.
These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians.
This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health. The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it. Another study examining the health and nutrition literacy status of residents of the lower Mississippi Delta found that 52 percent of participants had a high likelihood of limited literacy skills.
For example, only 12 percent of study participants identified the My Pyramid graphic two years after it had been launched by the USDA. The study also found significant relationships between nutrition literacy and income level and nutrition literacy and educational attainment  further delineating priorities for the region. Among these problems are the lack of information about food choices, a lack of understanding of nutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, limited or difficult access to healthful foods, and a range of cultural influences and socioeconomic constraints such as low levels of education and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for healthful eating and living.
The links between low health literacy and poor health outcomes has been widely documented  and there is evidence that some interventions to improve health literacy have produced successful results in the primary care setting. More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings  in order to achieve better health outcomes.
Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. In developing countries, malnutrition is more likely to be caused by poor access to a range of nutritious foods or inadequate knowledge.
The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage.
Although under- and over-nutrition are often viewed as human problems, pet animals can be under- or overfed by their owners, domesticated animals can be undernourished for macro- and micro-nutrients, affecting growth and health, and wild animals can be undernourished to the point of starvation and death. Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can lead to poor nutrition and to ill health.
It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis ,  and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today. ULs are set a safe fraction below amounts shown to cause health problems. ULs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes.
When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced. High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber.
Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating have a positive effect on cognitive and spatial memory capacity, with potential to increase a student's ability to process and retain academic information. Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions.
Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average G. Additional substantive data is needed to prove that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy. Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and obsessive compulsive disorder , the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.
Cancer is now common in developing countries. According to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs. Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i.
For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microtrauma and clot formation i.
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance the so-called metabolic syndrome are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity , elevated blood sugar , elevated blood pressure , elevated blood triglycerides , and reduced HDL cholesterol.
The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes. Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear.
It has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake, and reducing glycemic load see below all can reverse insulin resistance in overweight individuals and thereby lower their blood sugar level , in those with type 2 diabetes.
In addition, reduced leptin signaling to the brain may reduce leptin's normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may possess the potential to overwhelm the environment's ability to maintain homeostasis , the recent explosive introduction of high glycemic index and processed foods into the human diet may possess the potential to overwhelm the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and health as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages.
The relatively recent increased consumption of sugar has been linked to the rise of some afflictions such as diabetes, obesity, and more recently heart disease.
Increased consumption of sugar has been tied to these three, among others. In the same time span that obesity doubled, diabetes numbers quadrupled in America. Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Elevated amounts of Low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, is the primary factor in heart disease. In order to avoid all the dangers of sugar, moderate consumption is paramount.
Since the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago, the food processing industry has invented many technologies that both help keep foods fresh longer and alter the fresh state of food as they appear in nature. Cooling is the primary technology used to maintain freshness, whereas many more technologies have been invented to allow foods to last longer without becoming spoiled.
These latter technologies include pasteurisation , autoclavation , drying , salting , and separation of various components, all of which appearing to alter the original nutritional contents of food. Pasteurisation and autoclavation heating techniques have no doubt improved the safety of many common foods, preventing epidemics of bacterial infection. But some of the new food processing technologies have downfalls as well. Modern separation techniques such as milling , centrifugation , and pressing have enabled concentration of particular components of food, yielding flour, oils, juices, and so on, and even separate fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
Inevitably, such large-scale concentration changes the nutritional content of food, saving certain nutrients while removing others. Heating techniques may also reduce food's content of many heat-labile nutrients such as certain vitamins and phytochemicals, and possibly other yet-to-be-discovered substances.
In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids. A dramatic example of the effect of food processing on a population's health is the history of epidemics of beri-beri in people subsisting on polished rice. Removing the outer layer of rice by polishing it removes with it the essential vitamin thiamine , causing beri-beri.
Another example is the development of scurvy among infants in the late 19th century in the United States. It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated as suggested by Pasteur to control bacterial disease.
Pasteurisation was effective against bacteria, but it destroyed the vitamin C. As mentioned, lifestyle- and obesity-related diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent all around the world. There is little doubt that the increasingly widespread application of some modern food processing technologies has contributed to this development.
The food processing industry is a major part of modern economy, and as such it is influential in political decisions e. In any known profit-driven economy, health considerations are hardly a priority; effective production of cheap foods with a long shelf-life is more the trend.
In general, whole, fresh foods have a relatively short shelf-life and are less profitable to produce and sell than are more processed foods. Thus, the consumer is left with the choice between more expensive, but nutritionally superior, whole, fresh foods, and cheap, usually nutritionally inferior, processed foods. Because processed foods are often cheaper, more convenient in both purchasing, storage, and preparation , and more available, the consumption of nutritionally inferior foods has been increasing throughout the world along with many nutrition-related health complications.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Nutrition in general. For Nutrition in humans, see Human nutrition. For Nutrition in animals, see Animal nutrition. For nutrition in plants, see Plant nutrition.
For the medical journal, see Nutrition journal. Mineral nutrient and Composition of the human body. List of antioxidants in food. Animal nutrition and Human nutrition. Nutrition portal Food portal. Food Balance Wheel Biology: Bioenergetics Digestion Enzyme Dangers of poor nutrition Deficiency Avitaminosis is a deficiency of vitamins. Boron deficiency medicine Chromium deficiency Iron deficiency medicine Iodine deficiency Magnesium deficiency medicine Diabetes Eating disorders Illnesses related to poor nutrition Malnutrition Obesity Childhood obesity Starvation Food: Dieting Eating Healthy eating pyramid Nutritional rating systems Lists: Diets list List of food additives List of illnesses related to poor nutrition List of life extension related topics List of publications in nutrition List of unrefined sweeteners List of antioxidants List of phytochemicals Nutrients: Dietitian Nutritionist Food Studies Tools: Human Nutrition and Food".
Retrieved 13 December Understanding Nutrition 13 ed. Deficiency, How Much, Benefits, and More. The New York Times. Archived from the original on The Profession of Dietetics. A History of Nutrition. The Riverside Press Houghton Mifflin. Perspectives in Clinical Research. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 5 ed. The Journal of Nutrition. Observations on the effect of adding tryptophane to a dietary in which zein is the sole nitrogenous constituent" PDF.
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Introduction to Health Care 3 ed. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 3rd ed. An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology 5th ed.
Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 1 May Handbook of Plant Nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Retrieved May 9, Health and Literacy Intervention Outcomes: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. In Defense of Food: World Bank Research Observer. J Am Coll Health. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Public Economics. Chronicle of Higher Education. The vertical integration of food for thought". Cancer no longer rare in poorer countries". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Manufacturing Packaging Marketing Foodservice Fortification.
Botulism Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium perfringens Escherichia coli O H4 Escherichia coli O Devon colic Swill milk scandal Bradford sweets poisoning English beer poisoning Morinaga Milk arsenic poisoning incident Minamata disease Iraq poison grain disaster Toxic oil syndrome Jack in the Box E.
Cheese analogues Coffee substitutes Egg substitutes Meat analogues bacon list Milk substitutes Phyllodulcin Salt substitutes. Food power Food security Famine Malnutrition Overnutrition. Auxology Biological hazard Chief Medical Officer Cultural competence Deviance Environmental health Euthenics Genomics Globalization and disease Health economics Health literacy Health policy Health system Health care reform Public health law Maternal health Medical anthropology Medical sociology Mental health Pharmaceutical policy Public health intervention Public health laboratory Reproductive health Social psychology Sociology of health and illness.
Biostatistics Child mortality Community health Epidemiology Global health Health impact assessment Health system Infant mortality Open-source healthcare software Public health informatics Social determinants of health Health equity Race and health Social medicine. Human nutritions and healthy diets. Omnivore Entomophagy Pescetarian Plant-based. Bodybuilding supplements Meal replacement Therapeutic food. Liquid diets Very low calorie.
Obesity , cardiovascular disease. Xerophthalmia and night blindness. Hypervitaminosis A cirrhosis, hair loss. Dyspepsia , cardiac arrhythmias , birth defects. Rickets , Hypovitaminosis D. Hypervitaminosis D dehydration, vomiting, constipation. Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic stroke , reduced glycemic control among diabetics. Cardiovascular Disease , Cancer. Osteoporosis , tetany , carpopedal spasm , laryngospasm , cardiac arrhythmias. Fatigue , depression , confusion , nausea , vomiting , constipation , pancreatitis , increased urination , kidney stones.
Weakness, nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, and hypotension.