Types of Popular Diet Plans
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What's the best diet for diabetes?
According to the United States National Institutes of Health , vitamin B 12 is not generally present in plants and is naturally found in foods of animal origin.
The recommended dietary allowance of B 12 in the United States is, per day, 0. Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy , walnuts , pumpkin seeds, canola oil , kiwifruit , hempseed , algae , chia seed , flaxseed , echium seed and leafy vegetables such as lettuce, spinach , cabbage and purslane.
Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Olives and olive oil are another important plant source of unsaturated fatty acids.
Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels.
Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet is properly planned. Non-dairy milks that are fortified with calcium, such as soymilk and almond milk can also contribute a significant amount of calcium in the diet.
Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible exposure to ultraviolet UV light in sunlight. Vitamin D 2 , or ergocalciferol is found in fungus except alfalfa which is a plantae and created from viosterol , which in turn is created when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol which is found in fungi and named as a sterol from ergot.
Any UV -irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D 2. Claims have been made that a normal serving approx. There have been many comparative and statistical studies of the relationship between diet and longevity, including vegetarianism and longevity. A metastudy combined data from five studies from western countries. Regular meat eaters had the base mortality rate of 1.
The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data.
However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts". Out of the major causes of death studied, only one difference in mortality rate was attributed to the difference in diet, as the conclusion states: In Mortality in British vegetarians ,  a similar conclusion is drawn:.
British vegetarians have low mortality compared with the general population. Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to non-dietary lifestyle factors such as a low prevalence of smoking and a generally high socio-economic status, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish.
The Adventist Health Studies is ongoing research that documents the life expectancy in Seventh-day Adventists. This is the only study among others with similar methodology which had favourable indication for vegetarianism. The researchers found that a combination of different lifestyle choices could influence life expectancy by as much as 10 years.
The researchers concluded that "the life expectancies of California Adventist men and women are higher than those of any other well-described natural population" at The life expectancy of California Adventists surviving to age 30 was The Adventist health study is again incorporated into a metastudy titled "Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? Statistical studies, such as comparing life expectancy with regional areas and local diets in Europe also have found life expectancy considerably greater in southern France, where a low meat, high plant Mediterranean diet is common, than northern France, where a diet with high meat content is more common.
A study by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Physiological Chemistry looked at a group of 19 vegetarians lacto-ovo and used as a comparison a group of 19 omnivorous subjects recruited from the same region.
The study found that this group of vegetarians lacto-ovo have a significantly higher amount of plasma carboxymethyllysine and advanced glycation endproducts AGEs compared to this group of non-vegetarians. According to studies by the Permanente Journal and the National Institute for Health NIH , vegetarian diets are affordable and can help reduce health risks like high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and cholesterol levels.
A plant based diet has the potential to lower the risk of heart disease as well as reducing the amount of medications prescribed in instances of chronic illness. A change to a plant based diet, or vegetarianism, has had dramatic positive effects on the health of patients with chronic illnesses, significantly more than exercise alone .
Vegetarian diets have been studied to see whether they are of benefit in treating arthritis , but no good supporting evidence has been found. Certain alternative medicines , such as Ayurveda and Siddha , prescribe a vegetarian diet as a normal procedure.
Maya Tiwari notes that Ayurveda recommends small portions of meat for some people, though "the rules of hunting and killing the animal, practiced by the native peoples, were very specific and detailed". Now that such methods of hunting and killing are not observed, she does not recommend the use of "any animal meat as food, not even for the Vata types".
The human digestive system is omnivorous , capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal material. The American Dietetic Association has presented evidence that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders. At the same time the association cautions however, that the adoption of a vegetarian diet may not necessarily lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder".
Vegetarianism is associated with increased risk of depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorder, although causality cannot be established. Various ethical reasons have been suggested for choosing vegetarianism, usually predicated on the interests of non-human animals. In many societies, controversy and debate have arisen over the ethics of eating animals.
Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo , such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits. Others support meat eating for scientific, nutritional and cultural reasons, including religious ones. Some meat eaters abstain from the meat of animals reared in particular ways, such as factory farms , or avoid certain meats, such as veal or foie gras.
Some people follow vegetarian or vegan diets not because of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practises involved in the raising and slaughter of animals, i. Others still avoid meat because meat production is claimed to place a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant protein.
Ethical objections based on consideration for animals are generally divided into opposition to the act of killing in general, and opposition to certain agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat. Princeton University professor and animal rights activist Peter Singer believes that if alternative means of survival exist, one ought to choose the option that does not cause unnecessary harm to animals.
Most ethical vegetarians argue that the same reasons exist against killing animals in the flesh to eat as against killing humans to eat, especially humans with cognitive abilities equal or lesser than the animals in question. Singer, in his book Animal Liberation , listed possible qualities of sentience in non-human creatures that gave such creatures the scope to be considered under utilitarian ethics , and this has been widely referenced by animal rights campaigners and vegetarians.
Ethical vegetarians also believe that killing an animal, like killing a human, especially one who has equal or lesser cognitive abilities than the animals in question, can only be justified in extreme circumstances and that consuming a living creature for its enjoyable taste, convenience, or nutrition value is not a sufficient cause.
Another common view is that humans are morally conscious of their behaviour in a way other animals are not, and therefore subject to higher standards. McMahan stated that cognitively disabled human do not possess the same rights as non-disabled humans. While mentally disabled people were in the past often treated with extreme brutality, with the progression of morality most people understand that the rights of the cognitively disabled still include a right to life and kind treatment.
Increasingly, as moral philosophy progresses further, people understand that, outside of survival situations, denying the right to life to animals with equal or greater cognitive abilities than mentally disabled humans is an arbitrary, discriminatory practice based on habit and desire as opposed to logic.
Opponents of ethical vegetarianism argue that animals are not moral equals to humans and so consider the comparison of eating livestock with killing people to be fallacious. This view does not excuse cruelty, but maintains that animals do not possess the rights a human has. One of the main differences between a vegan and a typical vegetarian diet is the avoidance of both eggs and dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter and yogurt.
Ethical vegans do not consume dairy or eggs because they state that their production causes the animal suffering or a premature death. To produce milk from dairy cattle , calves are separated from their mothers soon after birth and slaughtered or fed milk replacer in order to retain the cows milk for human consumption. A dairy cow's natural life expectancy is about twenty years. In battery cage and free-range egg production, unwanted male chicks are culled or discarded at birth during the process of securing a further generation of egg-laying hens.
Ethical vegetarianism has become popular in developed countries particularly because of the spread of factory farming , faster communications, and environmental consciousness. Some believe that the current mass demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the welfare of animals, while others believe that practices like well-managed free-ranging and consumption of game, particularly from species whose natural predators have been significantly eliminated, could substantially alleviate the demand for mass-produced meat.
Ancient Greek philosophy has a long tradition of vegetarianism. Pythagoras was reportedly vegetarian and studied at Mt. Carmel, where some historians say there was a vegetarian community , as his followers were expected to be. Roman writer Ovid concluded his magnum opus Metamorphoses , in part, with the impassioned argument uttered by the character of Pythagoras that in order for humanity to change, or metamorphose , into a better, more harmonious species, it must strive towards more humane tendencies.
He cited vegetarianism as the crucial decision in this metamorphosis, explaining his belief that human life and animal life are so entwined that to kill an animal is virtually the same as killing a fellow human.
Everything changes; nothing dies; the soul roams to and fro, now here, now there, and takes what frame it will, passing from beast to man, from our own form to beast and never dies Therefore lest appetite and greed destroy the bonds of love and duty, heed my message!
Never by slaughter dispossess souls that are kin and nourish blood with blood! Jainism teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct as do some major  sects of Hinduism. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion.
Sikhism    does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet. Theravadins in general eat meat. In the Theravada canon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them from eating meat except specific types, such as human, elephant meat , horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh  but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made.
In several Sanskrit texts of Mahayana Buddhism , Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. Christians have always been free to make their own decisions about what to eat; however, there are groups within Christianity that practice specific dietary restrictions for various reasons.
Surviving fragments from their Gospel indicate their belief that — as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required — a vegetarian diet may or should be observed. However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors".
At a much later time, the Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in followed a vegetarian diet. They have also sponsored and participated in many scientific studies exploring the impact of dietary decisions upon health outcomes.
Additionally, some monastic orders follow a vegetarian diet, and members of the Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, anti-vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends.
According to Canon Law , Roman Catholics are required to abstain from meat defined as all animal flesh excluding water animals on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays of Lent including Good Friday. Canon Law also obliges Catholics to abstain from meat on the Fridays of the year outside of Lent excluding certain holy days unless, with the permission of the local conference of bishops, another penitential act is substituted.
The restrictions on eating meat on these days is solely as an act of penance and not because of a religious objection to eating meat.
Since the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Adventist church, and has been known as the "health message" belief of the church.
Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other animals proscribed as " unclean ". The church discourages its members from consuming alcoholic beverages , tobacco or illegal drugs compare Christianity and alcohol.
In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee , tea , cola , and other beverages containing caffeine. The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists.
His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William. In both Australia and New Zealand , the church-owned Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is a leading manufacturer of health and vegetarian-related products, most prominently Weet-Bix.
Research funded by the U. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian. The research , as cited by the cover story of the November issue of National Geographic , asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity.
Though there is no strict rule on what to consume and what not to, paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community, location, custom and varying traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe Jhatka meat,  while some Hindus believe that the cow is a holy animal whose slaughter for meat is forbidden. Some followers of Islam, or Muslims, chose to be vegetarian for health, ethical, or personal reasons.
However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial due to conflicting fatwas and differing interpretations of the Quran. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing. The former Indian president Dr. Abdul Kalam was also famously a vegetarian. Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian or seafood options when dining in non- halal restaurants.
However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole. Followers of Jainism believe that all living organisms whether they are micro-organism are living and have a soul, and have one or more senses out of five senses and they go to great lengths to minimise any harm to any living organism. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables because they believe that root vegetables contain a lot more micro-organisms as compared to other vegetables, and that, by eating them, violence of these micro-organisms is inevitable.
So they focus on eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation do not involve killing of a lot of micro-organisms. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed, because when a living beings dies, a lot of micro-organisms called as decomposers will reproduce in the body which decomposes the body, and in eating the dead bodies, violence of decomposers is inevitable.
Jain monks usually do a lot of fasting, and when they knew through spiritual powers that their life is very little, they start fasting until death. Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because the plants themselves and tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up. While classical Jewish law neither requires nor prohibits the consumption of meat, Jewish vegetarians often cite Jewish principles regarding animal welfare , environmental ethics , moral character, and health as reasons for adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet.
A number of medieval rabbis e. Many modern rabbis, by contrast, advocate vegetarianism or veganism primarily because of concerns about animal welfare, especially in light of the traditional prohibition on causing unnecessary "pain to living creatures" tza'ar ba'alei hayyim. According to Genesis , consumption of meat was prohibited to human beings 1: This reduces bloat and unnecessary water weight 2 , 3.
It is not uncommon to lose up to 10 pounds sometimes more in the first week of eating this way, both body fat and water weight. This is a graph from a study comparing low-carb and low-fat diets in overweight or obese women 4. The low-carb group is eating until fullness, while the low-fat group is calorie-restricted and hungry.
Cut the carbs and you will start to eat fewer calories automatically and without hunger 5. Put simply, cutting carbs puts fat loss on autopilot. Constructing your meals in this way will automatically bring your carb intake into the recommended range of 20—50 grams per day. The importance of eating plenty of protein cannot be overstated. This has been shown to boost metabolism by 80 to calories per day 6 , 7 , 8.
When it comes to losing weight, protein is the king of nutrients. You can eat massive amounts of them without going over 20—50 net carbs per day.
A diet based mostly on meat and vegetables contains all the fiber, vitamins and minerals you need to be healthy. It will make you feel miserable and abandon the plan. To see how you can assemble your meals, check out this low-carb meal plan and this list of healthy low-carb recipes. By lifting weights, you will burn lots of calories and prevent your metabolism from slowing down, which is a common side effect of losing weight 11 , Studies on low-carb diets show that you can even gain a bit of muscle while losing significant amounts of body fat If lifting weights is not an option for you, then doing some cardio workouts like walking, jogging, running, cycling or swimming will suffice.
It is important to stick to healthy carb sources like oats, rice, quinoa, potatoes, sweet potatoes, fruit, etc. But only this one higher carb day — if you start doing it more often than once per week you're not going to see much success on this plan. Be aware that cheat meals or carb refeeds are NOT necessary, but they can boost some fat-burning hormones like leptin and thyroid hormones 14 , You will gain some weight during your refeed day, but most of it will be water weight and you will lose it again in the next 1—2 days.
It is NOT necessary to count calories as long as you keep the carbs very low and stick to protein, fat and low-carb vegetables. However, if you really want to count them, use this calculator. Enter your details, and then pick the number from either the "Lose Weight" or the "Lose Weight Fast" section — depending on how fast you want to lose weight. There are many great tools you can use to track the number of calories you are eating.
Here is a list of 5 calorie counters that are free and easy to use. The main goal of this plan is to keep carbs under 20—50 grams per day and get the rest of your calories from protein and fat. Even more tips here: You can expect to lose 5—10 pounds of weight sometimes more in the first week, then consistent weight loss after that. If you're new to dieting, then things will probably happen quickly. The more weight you have to lose, the faster you will lose it.